Tag Archives: cancer

Plant-derived anti-cancer compounds explained at national conference

Dear all, Medicallexpress.com posted an update about plant derived anti cancer compounds.

Enjoy, Michiel Floris

***

Compounds derived from plant-based sources—including garlic, broccoli and medicine plants—confer protective effects against breast cancer, explain researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), partner with the UPMC CancerCenter.

In multiple presentations Sunday at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2014, UPCI scientists will update the cancer research community on their National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded findings, including new discoveries about the mechanisms by which the plant-derived compounds work.

“In recent years, we’ve made some very encouraging discoveries indicating that certain plants contain cancer-fighting compounds,” said Shivendra Singh, Ph.D., UPMC Chair in Cancer Prevention Research and professor in Pitt’s Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology.

“By understanding the molecular mechanisms by which these plant-derived compounds work against breast cancer, we hope to find efficient ways to use them to prevent and fight cancer in patients.”

At the AACR poster session “Mechanisms of Chemoprevention,” Dr. Singh will oversee four presentations by Pitt pharmacology & chemical biology researchers on plant-derived compound discoveries in his laboratory.

From: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-04-plant-derived-anti-cancer-compounds-national-conference.html

 

Dr. Mercola and Dr. LaValley Discuss Curcumin

Dr. Mercola wrote a very interesting article about curcuma which I would like to share with you all. I hope you will enjoy it.

Best regards, Michiel Floris

By Dr. Mercola

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death. What if there was a safe, natural herb that could work for nearly every type of cancer?

According to Dr. William LaValley, who focuses most of his clinical work on the treatment of cancer, curcumin—a derivative of turmeric, and the pigment that gives the curry spice turmeric its yellow-orange color—may fit the bill. It’s a natural compound that has been extensively researched, and has been found to have numerous health applications.

Like me, Dr. LaValley was trained in general medicine, but he’s devoted a considerable amount of time to understanding the biochemical pathways that can support health nutritionally.

In 1982, he participated in an exchange program to the People’s Republic of China, where he got first-hand experience with the ancient practices of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture.

“One of the important messages that I learned there was that natural products, natural molecules, from plants and animals that are already available in nature, have been used by the Chinese for at least hundreds, probably thousands of years. That deeply changed my perspective in the world of medicine,” he says.

“I came back to medical school, and thereafter, looked at how I could integrate the perspective of conventional pharmaceutical administration as well as natural extract, natural product administration.”

Curcumin Has Potent Anti-Cancer Activity

In 2005, he took a 75 percent sabbatical from clinical practice to immerse himself in the science of molecular biology, specifically the molecular biology of cancer. He also devoted approximately 9,000-9,500 hours building a relational database from the PubMed literature about the molecular biology of cancer.

One important lesson he learned through that venture is that the understanding of molecular biology can be applied across a range of diseases and symptoms described in the scientific literature. That knowledge can be applied by searching PubMed and other related databases, looking at the relevant molecular pathways involved.

“In learning the molecular biology of cancer pathways, and in learning that what the evidence actually shows for the effect of natural product extracts on various relevant molecular targets in various cancers, we see that there’s actually quite a large amount of evidence that supports using various molecules, natural products, and pharmaceuticals that are already approved and that have been around for a long time to affect anti-cancer activity along that pathway at that target. That’s called molecularly targeted anti-cancer treatment, and it’s widely practiced in oncology today.

What’s not widely practiced is the use of the natural products for the molecularly targeted anti-cancer activity. I provide that for my patients because the evidence base suggests and supports the use of these treatment recommendations.”

Curcumin—A ‘Universal’ Cancer Treatment?

Interestingly, curcumin appears to be universally useful for just about every type of cancer, which is really odd since cancer consists of a wide variety of different molecular pathologies. You wouldn’t necessarily suspect that there would be one herb that would work for most of them. Dr. LaValley explains how he came to this conclusion:

“I went back to the literature and looked at how I can support the decision-making process and the recommendations that I’m making for treatment from the scientific literature, including literature that goes from the treatment of humans with oral products like pharmaceuticals or natural products.

This is where I learned about this molecule called curcumin, all the way down to its use in animals and then its use in test tubes or petri dish… One of the amazing things about curcumin is that this molecule has some profound anti-inflammatory activity and has activity in many molecular targets.

There are molecules that are in the cells, and those molecules interact with each other along certain pathways or tracks. The traffic of that interaction, the signals that are transferred in that trafficking of information in the molecules, presents many different targets or molecular-specific complexes.”

As explained by Dr. LaValley, whether the curcumin molecule causes an increase in traffic or activity of a particular molecular target, or a decrease/inhibition of activity, studies repeatedly show that the end result is a potent anti-cancer activity. Furthermore, curcumin does not adversely affect healthy cells, suggesting it selectively targets cancer cells. Research has also shown that it works synergistically with certain chemotherapy drugs, enhancing the elimination of cancer cells.

Curcumin Destroys Cancer in Multiple Ways

Curcumin has the most evidence-based literature supporting its use against cancer of any nutrient, including vitamin D, which also has a robust base. Interestingly, this also includes the metabolite of curcumin and its derivatives, which are also anti-cancerous.

Curcumin has the ability to modulate genetic activity and expression—both by destroying cancer cells and by promoting healthy cell function. It also promotes anti-angiogenesis, meaning it helps prevent the development of additional blood supply necessary for cancer cell growth. As for its effect on molecular pathways, curcumin can affect more than 100 of them, once it gets into the cell. More specifically, curcumin has been found to:

Inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells Decrease inflammation
Inhibit the transformation of cells from normal to tumor Inhibit the synthesis of a protein thought to be instrumental in tumor formation
Help your body destroy mutated cancer cells so they cannot spread throughout your body Help prevent the development of additional blood supply necessary for cancer cell growth (angiogenesis)

Why Whole Turmeric Is Ineffective

Unfortunately, while there’s some curcumin in whole turmeric, there’s not enough in the regular spice to achieve clinically relevant results. The turmeric root itself contains only about three percent curcumin concentration. Another major limitation of curcumin as a therapeutic agent is that it is poorly absorbed. When taken in its raw form, you’re only absorbing about one percent of the available curcumin.

“The natural product industry has developed a standard of a 95-percent concentration of curcumin,” Dr. LaValley explains. “Initially, years ago, that was what we had available for patients. Even at that, taking a 95-percent concentration orally in a capsule, only one percent of that could be absorbed. In order to get amounts of curcumin in the bloodstream that are reasonable to have therapeutic effect, people had to take large amounts of curcumin…

In searching the literature, I found that a way to change that, to dramatically increase the bioavailability, is actually a very simple process of bringing water to a boil, putting those capsules or some dry powder (I use it by the teaspoon), and boiling it for 10 to 12 minutes. That increases the amount of curcumin dissolved in water from that one-percent amount up to 12 percent or so. That amount is a vast number of curcumin molecules that are now in a bioavailable or absorbable form.”

However, while this is certainly doable, it’s really inconvenient, and great care must be taken to prevent staining your clothes and kitchen surfaces. It’s a significant enough problem to have been dubbed “yellow kitchen syndrome,” as it’s virtually impossible to get the stains out. Turmeric is in fact an excellent dyeing agent for fabrics, rendering them a yellow-orange color.

Convenience and efficiency has driven many of the changes in the forms of curcumin in later years. Because it’s a fat-loving or lipophilic molecule, many newer preparations now include some sort of oil or fat, which improves its absorbability and bioavailability. Such preparations typically have seven to eight times higher absorption than the raw, unprocessed 95-percent-concentration of dry powder. There are also newer sustained release preparations, which Dr. LaValley prefers and recommends.

The Connection Between Cancer and Insulin Resistance

If you are overweight, or have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and/or diabetes, then in all likelihood insulin and leptin resistance is a factor. Insulin and leptin resistance is also a very common factor among cancer patients. From my perspective, a ketogenic diet (with or without intermittent fasting) would be a prudent treatment strategy to resolve that underlying problem. Once you’ve normalized your insulin and leptin, you don’t necessarily need to maintain a ketogenic diet, if you find it too restrictive.

“I agree with you that a ketogenic diet is really appropriate in many cases, probably the significant majority of cases,” Dr. LaValley says. “It’s been known for probably 80 years or longer that solid tumors, and some of the blood cancers, are sugar-loving. Another term is that they are addicted to sugar.

I use [a] PET scan to demonstrate to patients that here is objective proof that the tumors you have in your body are sugar-avid. They’re taking up sugar at a rate much higher than the other regular healthy cells. I want to drive home that message, so that they are motivated to alter their diet to have a low, low carb intake, causing their body to generate additional nutrient supply molecules called ketones…

What that means is that we’re trying to provide an anti-cancer antagonistic pressure on the cancer cells by reducing the amount of sugar that’s readily available for uptake by reducing the easily available sugar in the diet and compensating for the nutrient reduction and sugar [reduction] by increasing healthy fats.”

Cutting Down on Protein May Be Particularly Useful for Cancer Patients

It would also be prudent to assess your protein intake. Many Americans eat far more protein than required for optimal health. The reason for this is because your body can actually use excess protein (you do need some) to stimulate carbohydrate production. Excess protein also stimulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, which are useful for building muscles but can be detrimental when treating cancer, as mTOR is a pathway that increases cellular proliferation. (Interestingly, the pharmaceutical drug Metformin, which has anti-cancer activity, also inhibits mTOR, and it turns out that curcumin has a very similar effect.)

The formula I recommend for assessing how much protein you might need in your diet is from Dr. Rosedale, which calls for one gram of high-quality protein per kilogram of lean body mass, or about half a gram per pound of lean body mass.

As an example, if your body fat mass is 20 percent, your lean mass is 80 percent of your total body weight. So, if your total weight is 200 pounds; you would then divide 160 by 2.2 to convert pounds to kilograms and come up with 72.7 grams of protein. If you are doing vigorous exercises or are pregnant, you can add up to another 25 percent or another 18 grams in this illustration to increase your total to 90 grams per day.

More Information

Dr. LaValley is available for consultation on a wide variety of health challenges, including cancer, and he’s licensed to practice medicine in the US and Canada. His medical clinic is located in Chester, Nova Scotia, where he sees patients. Americans can fly there either through Chicago or Newark. His office number is 902-275-4555. He also spends time in Austin, Texas, where he conducts research. When there, he’s available to consult for other physicians and their patients.

“For instance, if a patient has pancreatic cancer and the physician wants to implement one of the protocols that I provide, I will do a consultation with that physician’s patient and then make recommendations to that physician for implementation,” he explains. “In that way, patients are able to get it locally without having to travel to Nova Scotia…

It’s a challenge right now because there’s so much information that’s not readily known by so many physicians that they become afraid. I think one of the biggest issues, certainly in US and Canada, is that when a physician wants to administer one of these natural products, or several of them, as well as some of the off-label pharmaceuticals for their anti-cancer usage, they are afraid of recriminations or disciplinary actions.

That is, I think, very unfortunate, because the evidence base does exist for it, and it’s consistent with the way that other types of conventional medicine or practice using off-label pharmaceuticals as well. I think that the most important movement that needs to occur is for the patients to recognize their own value in the decision-making process and demand that they have access to these therapeutic choices because they’re available, they’re supported in the evidence base, and they have the right to ask for them rather than to just accept whatever the physician is otherwise offering in the conventional realm.”

Source: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/02/curcumin-benefits.aspx

 

 

WHO: Imminent global cancer ‘disaster’ reflects aging, lifestyle factors

By Tim Hume and Jen Christensen, CNN
February 5, 2014 — Updated 0020 GMT (0820 HKT)

(CNN) — Cancer cases are expected to surge 57% worldwide in the next 20 years, an imminent “human disaster” that will require a renewed focus on prevention to combat, according to the World Health Organization.

The World Cancer Report, produced by the WHO’s specialized cancer agency and released on World Cancer Day, predicts new cancer cases will rise from an estimated 14 million annually in 2012 to 22 million within two decades. Over the same period, cancer deaths are predicted to rise from 8.2 million a year to 13 million.

The rising incidence of cancer, brought about chiefly by growing, aging populations worldwide, will require a heavier focus on preventive public health policies, said Christopher Wild, director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

“We cannot treat our way out of the cancer problem,” he said. “More commitment to prevention and early detection is desperately needed in order to complement improved treatments and address the alarming rise in cancer burden globally.”

The report notes that the rocketing cost of responding to the “cancer burden” — in 2010, the economic cost of the disease worldwide was estimated at $1.16 trillion — is hurting the economies of rich countries and beyond the means of poor ones.

The report said about half of all cancers were preventable and could have been avoided if current medical knowledge was acted upon. The disease could be tackled by addressing lifestyle factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and exercise; adopting screening programs; or, in the case of infection-triggered cancers such as cervical and liver cancers, through vaccines.”I know the report said we can’t treat our way out of (the cancer problem) but there are major things we can do,” said Dr. David Decker who works in oncology at Florida Hospital in Orlando. “Virtually 80 or 90 percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. I know stopping smoking is not easy for people, but it does seem like a pretty simple way to reduce the numbers.”

“The cancer rates are not going up for shocking reasons, but for reasons that are easier to understand, and if we improve overall health, there are things we can do to prevent this from happening,” Decker said.

Cutting smoking rates would have a significant impact, as lung cancer remained the most commonly diagnosed cancer (1.8 million cases a year, or 13% of total cancer diagnoses) and the deadliest, accounting for about one-fifth (1.6 million) of all cancer deaths worldwide.

There is a silver lining to the report, some experts said: It may lend urgency to the fight against cancer. Countries such as the United States present examples of success stories stemming from legislation and financial resources devoted to cancer prevention.

“The good news is, in (the United States), cancer mortality is trending downward, and that would be more true if you make an age adjustment,” said Dr. Walter Curran, chairman of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Emory University’s School of Medicine in Atlanta.

“Since we have an aging population, the cancer rate increases, and if you adjust for the aging of America, the cancer rate is declining notably.”

Curran said a typical 20-year-old American who doesn’t smoke, “who has a good diet and a healthy lifestyle, someone with moderate alcohol consumption and who takes preventive health measures like regularly seeing a doctor and getting exercise — their chance of cancer is significantly less than someone who for example lives in a developing country in Africa right now.”

However, the United States is dealing with an obesity epidemic — the rates of adults who are considered obese has doubled since the 1970s — and drinking excessively is still the No.3 cause of lifestyle-related death.

Smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, when the U.S. Surgeon General linked tobacco to lung cancer 50 years ago, more than 40% of the adult population smoked; now it’s about 19%.

Public health initiatives have also made a difference in smoking rates. The report eventually spurred local governments to make it harder for a smoker to find a place to practice their habit. Many restaurants, bars, and even public parks ban smoking.

National leadership gave state governments license to raise taxes on cigarettes so much that people quit because they could no longer afford their habit.

Money from the federal tobacco lawsuit settlement went into smoking cessation programs and gave farmers incentives to grow crops other than tobacco. The FCC banned persuasive cigarette ads that may have encouraged young people to smoke.

Smoking rates remain high in Asia and Africa. China — where one-third of the world’s cigarettes are smoked, according to the World Health Organization — only recently moved to ban indoor public smoking.

The report’s authors suggested governments take similar legislative approaches to those they had taken against tobacco in attempting to reduce consumption of alcohol and sugary drinks, and in limiting exposure to occupational and environmental carcinogens, including air pollution.

According to the report, the next two most common diagnoses were for breast (1.7 million, 11.9%) and large bowel cancer (1.4 million, 9.7%). Liver (800,000 or 9.1%) and stomach cancer (700,000 or 8.8%) were responsible for the most deaths after lung cancer.

“The rise of cancer worldwide is a major obstacle to human development and well-being,” said Wild, the International Agency for Research on Cancer director. “These new figures and projections send a strong signal that immediate action is needed to confront this human disaster, which touches every community worldwide.”

The report said the growing cancer burden would disproportionately hit developing countries — which had the least resources to deal with the problem — due to their populations growing, living longer and becoming increasingly susceptible to cancers associated with industrialized lifestyles.

More than 60% of the world’s cases and about 70% of the world’s cancer deaths occurred in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.

“In the developing world, we are really at the beginning of understanding how serious the cancer problem is in these countries,” said Emory School of Medicine’s Curran.

Cancers related to the HIV epidemic in developing countries and the spread of Hepatitis C are also on the rise, but so too is the general age of the population in developing counties. When you now have the potential to live long enough to see your grandchildren — something that was not true even a decade ago in many developing countries — your risk of having cancer is going to go up.

“When life expectancy get better, cancer rates will go up and so will cancer fatalities,” Curran said.

Governments needed to appreciate that screening and early detection programs were “an investment rather than a cost,” said Bernard Stewart, co-editor of the report — and low-tech approaches had proven successful in some developing countries.

The World Cancer Report, which is published about once every five years, involved a collaboration of around 250 scientists from more than 40 countries. Tuesday is World Cancer Day.

Source: CNN website

Foods That Are High in Sulforaphane

Overview

Sulforaphane belongs to a group of phytochemicals, or disease-fighting compounds in plant foods, known as the isothiocyanates. Along with related phytochemicals, it helps to prevent against the development of cancer. Sulforaphane prevents certain enzymes from activating cancer-causing agents in the body and increases the body’s production of other enzymes that clean carcinogens out of the system before they can damage cells, according to sources such as the Breast Cancer Research Program. Sulforaphane is produced in cruciferous vegetable plants only when two enzymes in separate “sacs” react, myrosinase and glucoraphanin.

Broccoli Sprouts

Broccoli sprouts are the richest food source of glucoraphanin, the precursor to sulforaphane, or SFN, also known as glucoraphanin sulforaphane. Three-day old broccoli sprouts are concentrated sources of this phytochemical, offering 10 to 100 times more of it, by weight, than mature broccoli plants or cauliflower, according to research published in September 1997 in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.” A 1-ounce serving provides 73 milligrams of sulforaphane glucosinolate. Per 100-gram serving, broccoli sprouts offer approximately 250 milligrams. You can purchase broccoli sprouts at many health food stores and certain grocery stores. Lightly cooked, they taste similar to steamed spinach.

Brussels Sprouts

Another vegetable within the cruciferous or Brassaca family is the Brussels sprout. According to the Linus Pauling Institute for Micronutrient Research, while all cruciferous vegetables are rich in these disease-fighting phytochemicals, some cruciferous vegetables are better sources of specific glucosinolates, or sulforaphane precursors, than others. A 1/2-cup serving or 44 grams of Brussels sprouts, raw, provides approximately 104 milligrams of total glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are water-soluble compounds that are leached into cooking water. These phytochemicals are easily destroyed. Boiling cruciferous vegetables for just 9 to 15 minutes decreases total glucosinolate content by 18 to 59 percent, according to research published in September 2003 in the “British Journal of Nutrition.” Cooking methods that use less water, such as microwaving or steaming, may reduce losses.

From: http://www.livestrong.com/article/307835-foods-that-are-high-in-sulforaphane/

Brussels sprouts

spouts

What’s New and Beneficial About Brussels Sprouts

  • Brussels sprouts can provide you with some special cholesterol-lowering benefits if you will use a steaming method when cooking them. The fiber-related components in Brussels sprouts do a better job of binding together with bile acids in your digestive tract when they’ve been steamed. When this binding process takes place, it’s easier for bile acids to be excreted, and the result is a lowering of your cholesterol levels. Raw Brussels sprouts still have cholesterol-lowering ability — just not as much as steamed Brussels sprouts.
  • Brussels sprouts may have unique health benefits in the area of DNA protection. A recent study has shown improved stability of DNA inside of our white blood cells after daily consumption of Brussels sprouts in the amount of 1.25 cups. Interestingly, it’s the ability of certain compounds in Brussels sprouts to block the activity of sulphotransferase enzymes that researchers believe to be responsible for these DNA-protective benefits.
  • For total glucosinolate content, Brussels sprouts are now known to top the list of commonly eaten cruciferous vegetables. Their total glucosinolate content has been shown to be greater than the amount found in mustard greens, turnip greens, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, or broccoli. In Germany, Brussels sprouts account for more glucosinolate intake than any other food except broccoli. Glucosinolates are important phytonutrients for our health because they are the chemical starting points for a variety of cancer-protective substances. All cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates and have great health benefits for this reason. But it’s recent research that’s made us realize how especially valuable Brussels sprouts are in this regard.
  • The cancer protection we get from Brussels sprouts is largely related to four specific glucosinolates found in this cruciferous vegetable: glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, and gluconasturtiian.  Research has shown that Brussels sprouts offer these cancer-preventive components in special combination.
  • Brussels sprouts have been used to determine the potential impact of cruciferous vegetables on thyroid function. In a recent study, 5 ounces of Brussels sprouts were consumed on a daily basis for 4 consecutive weeks by a small group of healthy adults and not found to have an unwanted impact on their thyroid function. Although follow-up studies are needed, this study puts at least one large stamp of approval on Brussels sprouts as a food that can provide fantastic health benefits without putting the thyroid gland at risk.

Source: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=10

Glossary: foods that fight cancer!

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) gives a lot of information about foods that fight cancer. They speak about individual ingredients, they provide an overview of research done on the ingredients, they provide nice recipes etc. They also give a very nice glossary of terms and definitions connected to cancer fighting foods.

Term Definition
Alpha-carotene One of a group of carotenoids found in colorful fruits and vegetables that can be made into vitamin A by the body.
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) A polyunsaturated fatty acid required by the body that is found in many vegetable oils.
Anthocyanin One of a class of flavonoid pigments found in many blue, red or purple plants.
Antioxidant A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals.
Apoptosis Programmed cell death.
Benign adenoma A non-cancerous tumor that arises from tissues covering the body’s organs.
Benzoic acid A carboxylic acid found in many berries that can be used as a preservative.
Beta-carotene One of a group of red, orange and yellow pigments called carotenoids.
Caffeine A substance found in the leaves and beans of the coffee tree, in tea, yerba mate, guarana berries, and in small amounts in cocoa. It is added to some soft drinks, foods, and medicines. Caffeine increases brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. It may also increase blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and the loss of water from the body in urine.
Case-control study In cancer research, a study that compares a group of people with cancer to a similar group without cancer. Also called a retrospective study.
Carotenoid A type of antioxidant and a provitamin. It is a yellow, red, or orange substance found mostly in plants.
Catechin One of a class of compounds called phenols; a potent antioxidant.
Ellagic acid One of a class of compounds called phenols; found in many berries.
Ellagitannin A polyphenol compound formed when ellagic acid links with a sugar.
Enzyme A protein that increases the rate of chemical reactions.
Epicatechin One of a class of compounds called phenols; structurally similar to catechin.
Epidemiology The study of disease and risk among human populations.
Flavonol One of class of compounds called flavonoids found in many plant foods.
Folate An essential B vitamin in the form naturally present in foods.
Folic acid An essential B vitamin in the form found in supplements and fortified foods.
Gamma-tocopherol One of a series of compounds that exhibits vitamin E-like behavior.
Glucosinolate Organic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen; found in cruciferous vegetables.
Hydroxycinnamic acid One of a class of polyphenol acids found in many fruits.
Inflammation The body’s reaction (swelling, heat) to harmful stimuli.
Indole Compound arising from glucosinolate found in cruciferous vegetables.
Inositol B vitamin required by the body; found in grains and other plant foods.
Isothiocyanate Chemical group containing sulfur, also known as mustard oils.
Kaempferol Member of the group of compounds called flavonols; found in many plant foods.
Lignan Member of the group of compounds called polyphenols with mild estrogen-like effects.
Lutein A carotenoid found in dark green leafy vegetables and orange-colored fruits and vegetables.
Perillyl alcohol (POH) A monoterpene found in cherries, lavendar, orange peels and other plants. POH inhibits growth of cancer cells and causes cell death in lab studies.
Phytoestrogen A plant substance that exhibits mild estrogen-like effects.
Polyp Abnormal growths of tissue that may or may not develop into cancer.
Polyphenol Member of a large class of plant compounds much studied for their health effects.
Proanthocyanidin Long-chained member of class of compounds called flavonols; found in many fruits.
Protease inhibitor A compound that interferes with the ability of certain enzymes to break down proteins.
Pterostilbene A polyphenol compound that shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Quercetin Member of a class of compounds called flavonoids found in tea, apples and many plant foods.
Resveratrol Member of a class of compounds called phenols; found in the skins of grapes and in many other plants, fruits, and seeds.
Saponin A long-chained compound found in soybeans and many other plants.
Sterols A class of organic molecules related to lipids; found in many plants.
Ursolic acid Member of a class of compounds called polyphenols; found primarily in cranberries’ skins.
Zeaxanthin A carotenoid found in dark green leafy vegetables and orange-colored fruits and vegetables.

Source: http://www.aicr.org/foods-that-fight-cancer/glossary.html

In order to support more cancer research, you are also able to make a donation on http://www.aicr.org/